What Are Antioxidants? Simple Definition Of How They Work
- Free Radicals
- What Is The Defense System Of Antioxidants?
- Oxidation Control In Food And Beverage Products
- Too Many Antioxidants Via Supplements Could Be Harmful
- Bottom Line On Antioxidants And Disease Prevention
- Reactive Oxygen Species And Reactive Nitrogen Species
Antioxidants are found abundant in beans, grain products, fruits and vegetables. Look for fruits with bright color – lutein in some of the yellow pigments found in corn; orange in cantaloupe, butternut squash and mango; red from lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon, and purple and blue in berries. It is best to obtain these antioxidants from foods instead of supplements. In addition, minimize the Can you take delta 8 gummies for pain? exposure of oxidative stress such as smoking and sunburn. “Blueberries also contain a bioactive compound called anthocyanin,” a type of antioxidant-rich flavonoid responsible for the coloring and many health benefits of blueberries. The energy-producing chemical reactions in our cells, for example, also produce free radicals — unstable molecules that steal electrons from other molecules.
All the phosphorylated polysaccharides derivatives tested showed higher antioxidant activities in both the cell system and in vitro due to highly phosphorylated derivatives having electron donating groups. Pumpkin polysaccharide exhibited a higher cytoprotective effect than the unmodified polysaccharide in vitro models, indicating that chemical modification could enhance the cytoprotective effect. Therefore, microwave thawing protects the antioxidant activity of samples compared to thawing at 20°C. Antioxidant activities of carbonyl-amine adducts are also influenced by the presence of other antioxidants in the studied system.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition featured a study that found those with high levels of vitamin C in their blood had almost a 50 percent decreased risk of stroke. Countless studies also have found that people who consume highly plant-based diets — loaded with things like fresh veggies, herbs, spices and fruit — have a better chance of living longer and healthier lives with less heart disease. The antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene have all been shown to have positive effects on preventing macular degeneration symptoms, or age-related vision loss/blindness. Free radicals accumulate in the body due to oxidative stress, which can be caused by a number of different factors, including diet and lifestyle.
They’re the source of the deep red color for which beets are known. Beets and, to a lesser extent, spinach and carrots, increase blood flow because of their nitrate content. Beets supply naturally occurring, nonsynthetic nitrates that are converted to nitric oxide, which increases vasodilation. At the professional level of competition, performance is everything, at nearly any cost. This is something recreational exercisers and competitors may not understand, but it’s a belief system dietitians must familiarize themselves with if they’re going to counsel athletes effectively.
Three-day-old seedlings were transferred to tubes containing Hoagland’s agar and mass-inoculated with a spore suspension of the test fungus. The high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of N-aroyl-anthranilic acid alkaloids is described. The compounds were separated on a C18 columns using methanol-aqueous buffer gradients at pH 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5.
I advise my clients to build five cups of veggies and two cups of fruit into each day’s worth of meals. For example, include one cup of veggies at breakfast, two at lunch and two at dinner, in addition to a cup of fruit at breakfast, Does Ultra Pain Relief CBD Gel help with Back Pain? and another as part of a daily snack. But when too many free radicals build up in the body, they can do serious damage to cells. This may contribute to conditions like cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
Several other studies have linked the antioxidants and other components in raspberries to lower risks of cancer and heart disease. Blueberries may contain the highest amount of antioxidants among all commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, making them the poster-child for antioxidative benefits. Since there are a lot of risk factors for disease we can’t control , it seems logical to take advantage of those we can. Free radicals are everywhere, including in many foods, medicines, and the environment itself. They’re in the air we breathe and the water we drink, not to mention being a natural byproduct of biological processes in the body. For years, such supplements have been widely hyped for cancer prevention and/or treatment, as has encouragement to eat colorful fruit and berries, which contain antioxidants.
Because it is soluble to both oil and water and it’s very small, it goes into human body easily. So, hydrogen can actually go into impaired cells and it can neutralize the strongest oxygen radical to inactivate oxygen radicals. Hydrogen (also called diatomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen or free-hydrogen) is the single most effective and powerful antioxidant on the planet. The extra electron is free to bond with any free-radical and neutralize it easily and with no adverse effects. Learn more about phytonutrients and how they play a role in your overall health.
During the interaction with ROS, the Mn atom undergoes several redox cycles before returning to its original valence state Mn and being ready for another anti-oxidant reaction. In this way, the efficacy of EUK-134 will not rapidly vanish as it is often the case with other anti-oxidants. Orthology Inc. is a management company that provides administrative and business support services to its affiliated practices. As a management company, Orthology Inc. does not provide or supervise the provision of care at its affiliated practices. Control over the care provided is the sole responsibility of the practices and the licensed professionals they employ. Services and office practices may vary across practices, and patients should contact the practices directly for all questions concerning their treatment.
Although melatonin and its metabolites, AFMK and AMK, are peroxyl radical scavengers, it is indicated that melatonin’s ability to resist lipid peroxidation may also involve its metabolite, c3-OHM . For the reaction with the peroxyl radical, c3-OHM was several orders of magnitude faster than melatonin, AFMK and AMK, and it was roughly 100-fold faster than water soluble vitamin E . Melatonin also directly scavenges the alkoxyl radical, a product resulting from the transition metal-catalyzed degradation of lipid peroxides. It was showed that the main hydroxylated metabolite of melatonin interaction with hypochlorous acid is 2-hydroxymelatonin . Subsequently, 2OHM and its keto tautomer, melatonin 2-indolinone, were the oxidative products of melatonin’s interaction with oxoferryl hemoglobin or OH• .
Shikonin mitigated tumor cell proliferation by elevating reactive oxygen species levels. Herein, we investigated the effects of shikonin on renal cancer cell cell proliferation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated that shikonin dose-dependently reduced the proliferation of Caki-1 and ACHN cells. Professor Ohta obviously inspired researcher, Tyler LeBaron, whose expertise is as a biochemist.
After destroying all the harmful molecules that make us sick by stealing electrons from them, they have to go looking for those electrons elsewhere. When there are enough antioxidants around, the free radicals just take electrons from the antioxidants. But when there aren’t enough antioxidants, the free radicals steal electrons from other cells like DNA, which messes with important processes in our body.
There is one main reason why you should juice your foods yourself.. Health and great nutrition has been my passion for over 25 years , particularly the role anti-oxidants plays in peoples lives. I’m guessing you don’t have that amount of time to research all the important and relavent info……
Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Acacia macrostachya. It would be ideal to seek advice from a nutritionist to see if you are in need of any supplements, what type you might need and how long you need to take them for. Hence, supplements may be needed by some individuals at certain times of their lives. Some carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A when released into the body.
Adequateantioxidant intakeis essential to a healthy diet, although some studies suggest that high-dose supplements may be harmful. Vitamin E.This fat-soluble antioxidant plays a critical role in protecting cell membranes against oxidative damage. Mizon’s Egg White Bubble Cleanser also contains maple tree sap as well as various citrus extracts that provide Vitamin C’s potent antioxidative and brightening properties in a gentle, foaming cleanser that’s suitable for all skin types. Peach & Lily’s Good Skin Day Sheet Mask has chia seeds, an amazing source of alpha lipoic acids, a potent antioxidant that helps diminish the appearance of fine lines and enlarged pores. Fundamentally, all antioxidants work to neutralize free radicals and prevent them from wreaking havoc.
What Is The Defense System Of Antioxidants?
Chemically speaking, it is a saturated hydrocarbon , meaning that it’s a nice and stable oily liquid with a long shelf life. It’s mainly a solvent for ingredients that do not like to dissolve in oils but rather in water. You can usually find it right in the very first spot of the ingredient list, meaning it’s the biggest thing out of all the stuff that makes up the product. When we take a breath, a very complex set of chemical reactions take place in our bodies which enable us to produce and store energy. To begin, it’s important to know that because of oxygen, our atmosphere is highly reactive. If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service.
Here are several cost-effective devices listed in order of effectiveness. Examples of phytochemicals include vitamin C in oranges, carotenoids in tomatoes and kale, and flavanols in blueberries, green tea, apples, and onions. An antioxidant is any stable compound able to give up an electron of their own to neutralize, or “turn off” free radicals. There were also significant differences in the levels of bilirubin, an antioxidant produced by the body. Earthing is also an effective antioxidant that aids your body to get rid of excess free radicals.
By doing this, free-hydrogen neutralizes free-radicals more efficiently and powerfully than anything else. When hydrogen is bonded to itself, it’s considered an antioxidant, but unlike any other antioxidant. Other antioxidants how to apply cbd cream for hand pain will lose their free electron and then could then potentially become harmful to the body if not eliminated quickly. Hydrogen is so small and light that it simply evaporates once the electron has been donated.
A study has included about forty thousand female participants taking vitamin E or a placebo over ten years. While the rates of major cardiovascular events were not reduced by taking vitamin E, a 25% reduction in mortality was observed in the group taking vitamin E. ROS and RNS are generally described as Oxygen-Free radicals and non-radical species . Oxidants are more stable than free radicals, but they can quickly generate free radicals in living organisms. Because it’s plucked at such a young stage and undergoes little if any oxidation, white tea is prized for its soft, fresh-from-the-garden flavor and aroma. Green tea, black tea, and oolong are generally made out of the leaves of the plant.
The time has come to seriously ask whether antioxidant use more likely causes than prevents cancer. Vitamin A deficiency has also been linked to skin dryness, scaling and follicular thickening of the skin. Based on concentrations of things like lutein and other carotenoids, examples of antioxidant foods that protect vision include spinach, kale, berries, broccoli and even egg yolks. Research shows that high-lutein sources like spinach are proven to help decrease eye-related degeneration and improve visual acuity.
Oxidative stress may also play a role in promoting ageing and suppressing the immune system. This is a simple but highly accurate scientific calorie calculator, along with 5 evidence-based tips on how to sustainably reduce calorie … Every second person would tell you they want to change their body. However, it’s important to keep in mind that free radicals also serve important functions that are essential for our survival. Carrots, sweet potato, spinach and kale are rich in beta-carotene.
Oxidation Control In Food And Beverage Products
However, upon ingestion, antioxidants usually undergo extensive metabolism that can generate a wide range of bioactive metabolites. This makes it difficult, but otherwise a need, to identify the ones responsible for the different activities of antioxidants. By better understanding their ways of action, the use of antioxidants in therapy can be improved. This review provides a summary on the role of the in vivo metabolic changes and the oxidized metabolites on the mechanisms behind the bioactivity of antioxidants. A special attention is given to metabolites described as products of biomimetic oxidative chemical reactions, which can be considered as models of free radical scavenging. During such reactions a wide variety of metabolites are formed, and they can exert completely different specific bioactivities as compared to their parent antioxidants.
With their ability to scavenge free radicals in the human body, antioxidants can reduce oxidative damage by donating an electron to free radicals and converting them into harmless molecules . Plant materials such as fruits, seeds, vegetables, and medicinal herbs contain free radical scavenging molecules known as phytochemicals. These include phenolic and nitrogenous compounds, vitamins, terpenoids, and other endogenous secondary metabolites which have reported antioxidant activities . According to the World Health Organization , at least 80% of the world’s population relies on medicinal plants for their primary health care needs . These plants are used due to their availability, affordability, cultural acceptability, and the general belief that herbal medicines are more efficacious and safe than allopathic drugs . It is not surprising therefore that bacterial diseases and other medical conditions are being managed using medicinal plants in many parts of the world, including Uganda [19–22].
Too Many Antioxidants Via Supplements Could Be Harmful
An evaluation of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci was applied in distinguishing 85 oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes selected from the collection of genetic resources. The set of genotypes included oats with white, yellow, and brown seeds as well as a subgroup of naked oat (Avena sativa var. nuda Koern). Variation at these loci was used to form potential heterotic groups potentially used in the oat breeding program. Altogether, 35 microsatellite alleles were detected (2–10 per locus). Polymorphic patterns completely differentiated all genotypes within the subgroups of white, brown, and naked oats, respectively. Only within the greatest subgroup of yellow genotypes, four pairs of genotypes remained unseparated.
A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. If this theory is correct, then drugs that lower antioxidant levels within cancer cells would be therapeutic. In fact, the ROS-generating agent arsenic trioxide has been shown to reduce levels of glutathione and thioredoxin.
Bottom Line On Antioxidants And Disease Prevention
The National Cancer Institute suggests a daily diet including at least five to nine servings of carotenoid antioxidant-rich foods. The best way to ensure adequate intake of quality antioxidants is to eat a variety of foods high in antioxidants in your daily diet. NADPH is involved in a much more diverse range of reactions in the cell than GSH. Nevertheless, because of its role in the glutathione peroxidase system, NADPH or the enzymes that generate this compound are sometimes considered antioxidants.
Learn more about the history and hype around so-called superfoods. To provide resources that help answer health questions, MedlinePlus brings together authoritative information from the National Institutes of Health as well as other Government agencies and health-related organizations. If you have age-related macular degeneration, consult your health care providers to determine whether supplements of the type used in the AREDS trial are appropriate for you. The relationship between free radicals and health may be more complex than has previously been thought. Under some circumstances, free radicals actually may be beneficial rather than harmful, and removing them may be undesirable.
Another major source of ROS, especially in the liver, is a group of enzymes called the cytochrome P450 mixed–function oxidases. Many different variants of these iron–containing enzymes exist, some of which are responsible for removing or detoxifying a variety of compounds present in our environment and ingested (e.g., foods or drugs), including alcohol. Some cytochrome P450 enzymes also are important for metabolizing substances that naturally occur in the body, such as fatty acids, cholesterol, steroids, or bile acids.
Reactive Oxygen Species And Reactive Nitrogen Species
Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Hydrogen therapy attenuates irradiation-induced lung damage by reducing oxidative stress. Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces the oxidative stress and relieves the severity of trauma-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles.
If iron is bound to a protein (e.g., hemoglobin), melatonin restores the highly covalent iron such as oxyferryl (FeIV-O) hemoglobin back to iron, thereby reestablishing the biological activity of the protein . It is suggested that, under physiological circumstances, direct chelation mechanism would be the major chelation route for Cu. It was demonstrated that melatonin and its metabolites, 3OHM, AFMK, and AMK, fully inhibited the oxidative stress induced by Cu-ascorbate mixtures, via Cu chelation . There are a number of prooxidative enzymes in multicellular organisms which generate free radicals .
Performance horses – increased exercise results in more free radicals. Although colour is a good indication of the antioxidant power of a food, however, there is a more precise way to measure it using a food’s ORAC potential . This is an objective measure of how good a food is at dealing with those oxidising exhaust fumes of life. There are many more antioxidants that can be used as a treatment to detoxify the graphene oxide that vaccinated and unvaccinated people may have in their bodies. There are so many that it is very difficult to mention them all in a video that pretends to cover those that have greater detoxifying power than the others. These are often used in combination with primary antioxidants for synergistic inhibition effects.
How To Reduce Free Radicals In Your Body
Hink of an antioxidant as more of an encompassing term that describes action, or the ingredient’s functional capacity to fight free radicals. The cutaneous antioxidant system consists of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances, but as our formulation focus is centered around non-enzymatic, we’ll be concentrating on these. Non-enzymatic antioxidants include a diverse range of low molecular weight substances such as vitamins A, C and E, melatonin, and ubiquinone . The most abundant non-enzymatic group is polyphenols; a particular passion of ours that bestow our formulas with their potent antioxidant capacity. The best sources of antioxidants are plant-based foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Plant-based antioxidants are a kind of phytonutrient, or plant-based nutrient.
Though chemically speaking, it is alcohol (as in, it has an -OH group in its molecule), its properties are totally different from the properties of low molecular weight or drying alcohols such as denat. Fatty alcohols have a long oil-soluble tail part that makes them absolutely non-drying and non-irritating and are totally ok for the skin. Professor Barry Halliwell, Tan Chin Tuan Centennial Professor at NUS Biochemistry and the Life Sciences Institute, is one of the world’s foremost experts in the field of antioxidants and free radicals.
So more free radicals and oxidative stress damage cells contributing to aging and degenerative processes. Free radicals are unstable atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons. They form when Oxygen molecules in the body split into individual unstable atoms, a process can cascade into a chain reaction. Too many free radicals in the body causes cellular damage and oxidative stress. Genetics and the environment influence how much damage free radicals cause individuals.
In the present study, oat flakes and semi-skimmed milk were used as the test meal. In terms of a food component, the potential antioxidant capacity of the oats (Avena sativa L.) and milk were already shown. Refusing to let cinnamon dominate the anti-oxidative spice category, oregano has been found to contain a high number of antioxidant compounds. It’s also got plenty of vitamin K, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Low in fat, packed with fiber, full of vitamins, minerals, and of course, antioxidants, an artichoke-a-day could indeed keep the doctor away.
Foods that are especially high in vitamin E are wheat germ oil, seeds, nuts, peanuts, spinach, and broccoli. If you eat adequate fruits and vegetables and eat nuts, seeds, or nut butter every day, you’re likely getting adequate amounts of vitamin E. If you don’t eat these foods regularly, consider supplementing with up to 15 milligrams of vitamin E every day. Beta-carotene is a “red-orange pigment found in plants and fruits, especially carrots and colorful vegetables,” Medical News Today explained.
Help us drive the future of cancer prevention, and give families and communities the tools they need to take charge of their health. AICR is committed to putting what we know about cancer prevention into action. To help you live healthier, we’ve taken the latest research and made 10 Cancer Prevention Recommendations. Read real-life accounts of how AICR is changing lives through cancer prevention and survivorship. Whether you are a healthcare provider, a researcher, or just someone who wants to learn more about cancer prevention, we’re here to help. The first inkling came in a large trial of beta-carotene conducted among men in Finland who were heavy smokers, and therefore at high risk for developing lung cancer.
Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in mostforms of aerobic life. In cells, glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzyme glutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzyme systems as well as reacting directly with oxidants. Due to its high concentration and central role in maintaining the cell’s redox state, glutathione is one of the most important cellular antioxidants.
Probiotics live naturally in the body in the form of yeasts and live bacteria that aid with digestion and intestinal health. As supplements, they’re used to treat diarrhea and other digestive problems. Probiotics come in several forms, including some yogurts, capsules, chews, powders, and in some dog food formulations.
Increasing the diversity of plant species in your horse or pony’s grazing isn’t always practical, so including different types of plant material in the bucket feed might offer a more feasible alternative. Alfalfa, for example, is a rich source of beta carotene and flavones, as well as vitamins and minerals. Adding apples and carrots to the feed is not just a nice treat, but would also supply additional antioxidants such as quercetin, which is found in apple skins. They are typically found in the same foods thatessential micronutrientsare in, so adding an array of plant-based foods into your diet is the simplest and easiest way to increase the amount of these “extra” micronutrients in your body.
The data resulted from the experiment confirmed the positioning of substances with antioxidant role especially in the superior data of oat grains and high quantity of substances with antioxidant role in oats. Inflammation is an essential response to tissue injuries induced by physical, chemical, or biological insults . The production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-1β (interleukin-1β), or IL-6 attenuates by melatonin in numerous experimental models of inflammation . Melatonin has several additional anti-inflammatory effects, which are probably related to a direct interaction with specific binding sites located in lymphocytes and macrophages . Anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin includes inhibition of the activation of COX-2 and iNOS, as well as blocking of the transcriptional factors that triggers pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
The body produces many different antioxidants to protect itself from different diseases due to tissue injury. Antioxidants are an essential part of optimal health, and the spotlight is growing on these important nutrients. CBD Öl Hanfsamen The use of the word ‘antioxidants’ is becoming quite common in labeling certain foods or products to promote their health benefits. Humans and all organisms have an internal antioxidant defense system.
USDA Scientists developed a scale that rates and measures the antioxidant content of various natural plant foods. Not all instances of ROS production are detrimental to the organism, however. One beneficial effect, as the main article describes, is the production of ROS by certain immune cells in order to destroy invading foreign organisms (Rosen et al. 1995). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that ROS, especially hydrogen peroxide, may be important in signal transduction mechanisms in cells and thus may be an integral component of cellular physiology and metabolism .
Here’s what the science says about the best time to take your vitamins, including prenatal and B vitamins. The main antioxidant nutrients are vitamin A/beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium. The big three antioxidant nutrients are vitamin A , vitamin C, and vitamin E. Taking antioxidants may or may not be harmful during cancer treatment.
The observed differences in the amounts and activities between rye genotypes reflected variations in their genetic background. Genetic diversity in rye makes it possible to identify individual genotypes that have a unique content and biological activity of compounds deposited in mature grains. One subgroup of rye genotypes had higher values of antioxidant properties and concentrations of polyphenols. Other sub-group had higher proteinase inhibitory activities and contents of polyphenols. The third sub-group contained as though the universal genotypes, i.e. genotypes with average values in nearly all the measured parameters. Melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland in response to darkness .
Diced beets can be added to salads, and roasted beets can make an excellent side dish. This could simply be due to mutations of the germs and viruses, which could possibly mean that higher dosages may be required, than those prescribed in ancient times. Hence, ancient formula and dosages may need to be altered, to counter modern day germs and viruses.
It is important to fuel the body optimally before, during and after exercise, as well as to stay hydrated. You should keep a healthy weight, consider one of these diets, though exercise is also important. Dietary supplements are also available for those who do not consume enough antioxidant foods. Free radicals that contain the element oxygen are the most common type of free radicals produced in living tissue. Carbon monoxide can prevent cell and tissue damage by restoring redox homeostasis and counteracting inflammation.
However, observational studies cannot account for other factors; the findings show that people who ate more vegetables and fruits have less chance of oxidative stress-induced diseases. The findings support the idea that antioxidants, by reducing oxidative stress, benefit tumor cells more than they benefit normal healthy cells, Dr. Morrison added. The results also support the idea that treating patients with pro-oxidants might be a way to prevent metastasis, he said. In their most recent study, published October 7 in Science Translational Medicine, Dr. Bergö’s team examined the effects of antioxidants on melanoma. They chose to study melanoma because the incidence of melanoma is increasing in the United States and Europe, melanoma cells are sensitive to oxidative stress, and a good mouse model of melanoma already exists, Dr. Bergö explained. Some vitamins, minerals and other nutrients are identified as antioxidants, because they protect the body against the so-called “free radicals”.
When one free radical “steals” an electron from a molecule, that molecule is then missing an electron , and so on. Free radicals can damage not only DNA , but proteins, lipids, cell membranes, and more in the body. Damage to proteins (protein cross-linking and more) and huile de cbd pour vapoter other body components may cause disease directly. Due to this lack of a stable number of outer shell electrons, they are in a constant search to bind with another electron to stabilize themselves—a process that can cause damage to DNA and other parts of human cells.
Antioxidants that come from outside the body are called exogenous. These are called the non-nutrient antioxidants and include phytochemicals, . When teaching kids about antioxidants, it’s crucial to provide age-appropriate information. One—dietary, or exogenous—comes from your external environment, while the other—endogenous—is a more powerful free radical fighter produced inside your body. What you may not know is that it’s full of toxic chemicals and substandard, dirt-cheap ingredients designed to make you eat more…and force you to gain weight.
The first enzyme specific for the flavonoid pathway, chalcone synthase, produces chalcone scaffolds from which all flavonoids derive. Flavonoids most common in oat include apigenin, luteolin, tricin, kaempferol, quercetin and their glycoside derivatives . The majority of metabolites identified were classified as flavonoids, with most being glycoside derivatives of apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol and tricin. Following figure shows a non-human primate having bleeding gums due to a vitamin deficiency.- Deficiency of which vitamin could it be? Instead of paying to watch Flamenco dancing in the US or your hometown, watch it for free at bars like the famous El Palacio Andaluz or La Carbonería at the birthplace of this hot and passionate dance. If you make it in time in April, you could also go to the festival ‘Feria de Abril’ in Seville to see the passion and hospitality of Spaniards.